How to Integrate LoRaWAN Sensor to BACnet BMS System via Linovision Gateway

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Linovision gateway is able to decode the data of LoRaWAN sensors and map the sensor data into BACnet objects used by BMS system or BACnet devices, which can quickly and easily integrate LoRaWAN devices to Building Management System.



  • Linovision Gateway: IOT-G65/G67 with firmware version and later
  • Any LoRaWAN sensor
  • BACnet Client tool: take Yabe as example



  1. Go to Network Server > Payload Codec to check if there is decoder of your LoRaWAN node, if not please add and custom the decoder referring to article How to Use Payload Codec on Linovision Gateway.

  2. Connect LoRaWAN node to Linovision gateway referring to article How to Connect LoRaWAN Nodes to Linovision Gateway. Note that ensure the correct payload codec is selected when adding this device.

  3. Go to Network Server > Packets to check if there is uplink packet and click Details to check if the decoder works. If works, the JSON item will show the decoded result.




  1. Select the Application you use and add a BACnet/IP transmission.





  1. Go to Protocol Integration > BACnet Server > Server to enable BACnet server and configure the settings. Note that the Device ID should be changed to an unique value to avoid conflict with other BACnet server devices, or the BACnet client may not find this device.


  1. Go to Protocol Integration > BACnet Server > BACnet Object page, click Add to add an object.
  • Device Name: select the device added on Network Server > Device page
  • LoRa Object: select or customize a sensor variable decoded on JSON item of Network Server > Packets page
  • Object Name: customize an unique object name
  • Object Type: select Analog Input or Binary Input for non-editable sensor data

Example 1: temperature data

  • COV: when the change of analog type object value exceeds the COV Increment, the gateway will send notification to BACnet client actively. This should ensure the BACnet client supports COV feature.




Example 2: button status

  • Active/Inactive Text: display the real status when button is pressed or unpressed
  • Polarity: Define the binary status as Normal or Reverse.



Note: for LInovision buttons (IOT-S500BT and IOT-S500SP), it's suggested to add msgid value (update a random value if the press is triggered) to an object and know if the button is pressed by the change of this value.



  1. After adding, you can check if object values are updated regularly.



  1. Open Yabe BACnet client tool, click Add device to scan the devices, then you can find the BACnet server device according to the Device ID and check the object list.




  1. Click the object to check all the properties of this object.





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How to Use Payload Codec on Linovision Gateway

lud zhu


When Linovision gateway work as embedded network server, it supports to send data to third party server via MQTT/HTTPS and it will send every data as below JSON format:

{"applicationID":"1","applicationName":"cloud","data":"A2fqAARoTwUAAA==","devEUI":"24e124136b502217","deviceName":"EM300-TH","fCnt":128,"fPort":85,"rxInfo":[{"altitude":0,"latitude":0,"loRaSNR":13.8,"longitude":0,"mac":"24e124fffef54092","name":"Local Gateway","rssi":-51,"time":"2022-12-27T07:21:27.078763Z"}],"time":"2022-12-27T07:21:27.078763Z","txInfo":{"adr":true,"codeRate":"4/5","dataRate":{"bandwidth":125,"modulation":"LORA","spreadFactor":7},"frequency":868100000},"metadata":{"mqtt_topic":"/mqtttest"}}


This article will guide you how to custom uplink and downlink contents via Payload Codec feature.


  • Linovision LoRaWAN Gateway: IOT-G65/G67 with firmware version and later

For other models or versions, please refer to How to Use Payload Codec on Linovision Gateway(old).



Inbuilt Payload Codec

Linovision gateway has supported the inbuilt payload codec library to add Linovision decoders and encoders easily. It supports two obtaining types:

Online: when gateway is able to access the Internet, it will check the update and update the library automatically. You can also click Obtain to check the update.

Local Upload: upload decoder package locally.

When you add any device on Network Server > Device page, you can select the decoder and the decoded data will be shown on the packet details of Network > Packets page.

Custom Payload Codec

If you use other brand devices or the default decoder does not work with your application, please add a custom payload codec:

Uplink Content Customization

Take IOT-S500TH as example, here are 3 situations for uplink content customization.

1. Only upload decoded sensor data.

Copy IOT-S500TH decoder and paste it to Payload decoder function box.

Note: If you configure the sensor from other company, please contact their support to get the Decoder Script (Java Script), then ensure the script header is function Decode(fPort, bytes) when paste.

You can use Payload Codec Test feature to test the uplink result.

Uplink Result:

{ "battery": 92, "temperature": 30.8, "humidity": 50.5,}



2. Upload specific attribute items and raw data.

Click here to know all attribute items in one package. Linovision gateways provide function LoRaOject to call every item you require. If you need to send dev EUI, RSSI, SNR and raw data, edit this example coder:

function Decode(fPort, bytes) {var decoded = {};decoded.devEUI = LoRaObject.devEUI;decoded.rssi = LoRaObject.rxInfo[0].rssi;decoded.snr = LoRaObject.rxInfo[0].loRaSNR; =;return decoded;}


Uplink Result:

{"devEUI":24e1611234567890"rssi": -5,"snr": 11,"data": AXVkA2cgAQRoeg==}


After adding, you can add this payload codec to a device and go to Network Server > Packets to check the uplink result on Packet Details.


3. Upload specific attribute items and decoded data.

Copy IOT-S500-TH decoder and paste it to Payload decoder function box, then add attribute items before return decoded statement:

function Decode(fPort, bytes) { var decoded = {}; //Data decoder for (var i = 0; i < bytes.length;) { var channel_id = bytes[i++]; var channel_type = bytes[i++]; // BATTERY if (channel_id === 0x01 && channel_type === 0x75) { decoded.battery = bytes[i]; i += 1; } // TEMPERATURE else if (channel_id === 0x03 && channel_type === 0x67) { decoded.temperature = readInt16LE(bytes.slice(i, i + 2)) / 10; i += 2; } // HUMIDITY else if (channel_id === 0x04 && channel_type === 0x68) { decoded.humidity = bytes[i] / 2; i += 1; } else { break; } } decoded.devEUI = LoRaObject.devEUI; return decoded;}/* ****************************************** * bytes to number ********************************************/function readUInt16LE(bytes) { var value = (bytes[1] << 8) + bytes[0]; return value & 0xffff;}function readInt16LE(bytes) { var ref = readUInt16LE(bytes); return ref > 0x7fff ? ref - 0x10000 : ref;}

Uplink Result:

{ "battery": 92, "temperature": 30.8, "humidity": 50.5,"devEUI":24e1611234567890}

Note: If you need to add all attribute items, add decoded.obj= LoRaObject; before return decoded statement.

After adding, you can add this payload codec to a device and go to Network Server > Packets to check the uplink result on Packet Details.


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Build a Resilient & Reliable Retail Network with Linovision Retail Solutions

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Retail businesses depend on a robust network to operate effectively. A resilient and reliable network ensures business continuity, enhances customer experience, and boosts productivity. The rise of e-commerce in recent years has intensified competition and heightened customer expectations, necessitating stronger network infrastructures for retailers.

This article discusses crucial factors retailers should consider when building a resilient and reliable network and demonstrates how Linovision retail solutions can help meet these requirements.

Essential Considerations

When constructing a resilient and reliable network, retailers must account for several key factors to ensure their network can support the demands of contemporary retail.

Bandwidth and Application Requirements

Retailers need to assess their network bandwidth requirements to adequately support their applications and services. This includes considering the number of connected devices, the volume of data transmission, and the necessary network speed.

With the expansion of e-commerce, retailers require networks that can handle substantial data loads. This necessitates high-speed connections, ample bandwidth, and low latency. Planning for future scalability is also crucial.

Alternatives to Legacy Connectivity

Retailers should explore alternative solutions for high-bandwidth applications, such as implementing secondary networks or using broadband bonding instead of a single high-capacity circuit. Considering IPSec virtual private networks (VPNs) as alternatives to multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) can also be beneficial.

Evaluating these alternatives allows retailers to optimize their network infrastructure and maximize return on investment (RoI).

Integrating Other Systems

Consolidating other systems, such as phone and security systems, onto the network can enhance its reliability and resilience. This integration reduces the number of physical systems to manage, thereby simplifying complexity and improving reliability.

For instance, moving security systems onto the network enables remote monitoring and integration with access control and video surveillance systems.

Building a Resilient & Reliable Network with Linovision Retail Solutions

Linovision offers a suite of products and services tailored to help retailers develop resilient and reliable networks.

Flexible Wired Infrastructure

Linovision provides a variety of switches, routers, and other networking products designed for high-speed, reliable connectivity. For example, the POE-SW716GM-10G switch features 10G ports for versatile retail network deployments. The POE-SW708GM and POE-SWR608G switches incorporate advanced chips for superior network performance. Linovision switches also support various network security strategies to ensure the network’s reliability and flexibility.

Linovision RemoteMonit Cloud Management

The Linovision RemoteMonit Cloud management platform offers a cloud-based solution that simplifies retail network management. RemoteMonit provides real-time network performance visibility, enabling retailers to quickly identify and address issues.

Retail-Built Wi-Fi 6

The Retail-Built Wi-Fi 6 IOT-CPE5G delivers fast, reliable connectivity with 2.4G & 5GHz dual-band Wi-Fi and 2x2 MIMO Dual Radios for optimized performance. Featuring a Qualcomm Quad-Core Processor and 512MB DDR RAM, it is designed for quick and cost-effective deployment. Managed via Linovision cloud, the IOT-CPE5G is highly scalable, allowing for network expansion as business needs grow.


Retailers must ensure their networks can meet the increasing demand for fast, reliable, and secure connectivity to support their business objectives. Linovision retail solutions offer the tools and support necessary to build and maintain such networks.

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Layer 2 vs Layer 3 Switch: Which One Do You Need?

lud zhu

Network switch can connect to various terminal devices, set up LANs, and enable direct communication among all equipment. With the evolution of networks, different types of switches have been introduced. According to the OSI model, a Layer 2 switch operates at the data link layer, while a Layer 3 switch functions at the network layer. This raises the question: Should I use a Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch?
Before addressing this, it’s important to understand the OSI model and the role of network switches.

OSI Model and Network Switch: What Are They?

OSI Model

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a conceptual framework that divides network communication functions into seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Transmitting data over a network is a complex process requiring the collaboration of various hardware and software technologies, crossing geographical and political boundaries. The OSI model provides a universal language for computer networks, enabling different technologies to communicate using standard protocols or communication rules. Each layer within the OSI model has specific functions and tasks that ensure the network operates smoothly. Higher-level technologies benefit from this abstraction, as they can utilize lower-level technologies without needing to understand the underlying implementation details.

Advantages of OSI Model:

  • Clear distinction between hardware and software
  • Improved understanding and communication of processes
  • Efficient troubleshooting
  • Open interoperability between different systems
  • Clear communication of product functionality

Network Switch

A network switch (also known as a switching hub, bridging hub, or MAC bridge by the IEEE) is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device.

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also forward data at the network layer (Layer 3) by incorporating routing functionality, known as Layer 3 or multilayer switches.

What Is a Layer 2 Switch?

A Layer 2 switch operates at the data link layer of the OSI model, efficiently forwarding data packets based on MAC addresses. It works within the hardware layer, eliminating the need for frame modification. Layer 2 switches are commonly used for workgroup connectivity and network segmentation, enhancing performance and reducing collision domains.

Key functionalities of a Layer 2 switch include:

  1. High-speed forwarding: These switches achieve fast data frame forwarding by referencing an address table to find the port associated with the destination MAC address, eliminating the need for decapsulation and encapsulation of data frames.

  2. Collision domain isolation: Each port on a Layer 2 switch is treated as an independent collision domain, reducing collisions and retransmissions of data frames, thus improving network performance.

  3. VLAN support: Layer 2 switches enable the creation and management of virtual LANs (VLANs). By adding VLAN identifiers to data frames, different logical networks can be divided and controlled effectively.

What Is a Layer 3 Switch?

Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches differ primarily in their routing capabilities. A Layer 2 switch operates solely based on MAC addresses, disregarding IP addresses and higher layer elements. In contrast, a Layer 3 switch, or multilayer switch, performs the functions of a Layer 2 switch while adding static and dynamic routing capabilities. This means a Layer 3 switch maintains both MAC address and IP routing tables, facilitating intra-VLAN communication and packet routing across different VLANs. Additionally, there are Layer 2+ (Layer 3 Lite) switches that offer static routing exclusively. Layer 3 switches not only route packets but also provide advanced features like VLAN traffic tagging based on IP addresses, enhancing power, security, and network management capabilities.

Key functionalities of a Layer 3 switch include:

  1. Isolated broadcast domains: Each port on a Layer 3 switch functions as an independent broadcast domain, minimizing the impact of broadcast storms on network performance and bolstering network security.

  2. Routing protocol support: Layer 3 switches can accommodate various routing protocols (such as RIP, OSPF, BGP, etc.), enabling dynamic routing updates and exchanges with other routers or Layer 3 switches. This enhances network reliability and flexibility.

  3. Policy routing support: Layer 3 switches offer policy routing capabilities based on source IP addresses, destination IP addresses, protocol types, and other conditions. This allows for differentiated processing or forwarding of data packets based on their types or priorities, optimizing network efficiency and quality.

For superior processing performance and network reliability, Linovision offers different types of managed poe switch. Visit for more information.


What Are the Differences Between Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switches?

Below is a comparison of the key differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches:

How to Choose the Suitable Switches for Your Network Need

When deciding between a Layer 2 switch and a Layer 3 switch, consider the following factors:

For Layer 2 Switch:

Network Size: Suitable for small to medium-sized networks that require high-speed connectivity within the same network segment.

Network Segmentation: Helps reduce congestion and improve performance by dividing the network into smaller domains within a LAN setting.

Cost-Effectiveness: Generally less expensive due to its limited functionality.

Simple Subnet Networks: Adequate for single subnet networks with low traffic volumes.


For Layer 3 Switch:

Advanced Routing: Necessary for networks that require inter-VLAN routing, Quality of Service (QoS), and enhanced security features.

Multiple VLANs: Enables routing between VLANs, making it ideal for large organizations with complex network setups.

Network Scalability: Offers greater scalability by managing routing between multiple segments, preventing congestion and accommodating complex traffic patterns.

Future Expansion: Recommended for networks with anticipated growth, providing advanced routing capabilities to support future needs.


This post has explained the differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 Switch. The comparison of their functions is also made, in the hope of solving the problem of deciding between these devices. In network systems, Layer 2 and Layer 3 switches can be selected and combined according to different needs and scenarios to achieve high efficiency and reliability of network communication.

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Exploring the Future of Remote Connectivity: Solar PoE Switches

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In our increasingly interconnected world, the demand for reliable and sustainable connectivity in remote locations continues to grow. Traditional power sources are often unavailable or impractical in these environments, making innovative solutions like Solar PoE Switches with Built-in MPPT Solar Charge Controllers essential for bridging the gap.

Harnessing Solar Power for Connectivity

Imagine a scenario where surveillance cameras need to be installed in a remote wildlife reserve or a wireless network must be established in a rural community without access to grid electricity. This is where Solar PoE Switches shine. These devices integrate cutting-edge Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technology with Power over Ethernet (PoE) capabilities, allowing them to efficiently harness solar energy and distribute both power and data over a single Ethernet cable.

Key Features and Functionality
MPPT Solar Charge Controller: The heart of the Solar PoE Switch, the MPPT controller optimizes the output from solar panels by adjusting voltage and current to ensure maximum efficiency. This means even under varying sunlight conditions, the switch can consistently deliver power to connected devices such as IP cameras, wireless access points, or environmental sensors.
Power over Ethernet (PoE): By leveraging PoE technology, the switch eliminates the need for separate power lines to each device. This simplifies installation, reduces costs, and ensures a streamlined network setup in remote locations where infrastructure is limited.
Rugged and Weatherproof Design: Designed to withstand harsh outdoor conditions, Solar PoE Switches are built with rugged, weatherproof enclosures. They can endure temperature extremes, humidity, and exposure to the elements, ensuring reliable operation in challenging environments.
Environmental and Cost Benefits: Utilizing solar power reduces reliance on traditional energy sources, making Solar PoE Switches not only environmentally friendly but also cost-effective over the long term. They contribute to sustainability efforts by minimizing carbon footprints and operational costs associated with remote infrastructure maintenance. 

Applications and Real-World Benefits

Remote Surveillance: Protecting wildlife reserves or monitoring remote industrial sites becomes feasible with solar-powered surveillance cameras powered by these switches. 

Community Networks: Facilitating internet access and connectivity in rural or underserved areas where extending traditional power lines is impractical. Combined with the use of a 4G wireless router, it makes it possible to use the Internet in areas where it is impossible to set up a wired network.
Environmental Monitoring: Supporting scientific research by powering sensors and data collection devices in remote environmental monitoring systems.


Solar PoE Switches represent a significant advancement in infrastructure technology, enabling connectivity where it was once thought impossible or economically unfeasible. By harnessing the power of the sun and integrating sophisticated power management capabilities, these devices empower organizations and communities to expand their networks sustainably and reliably.
As we continue to explore and expand our connectivity needs globally, solutions like Solar PoE Switches will play a crucial role in bridging the digital divide and advancing sustainable development goals. Embracing these innovations not only enhances connectivity but also contributes to a greener, more resilient future for all.


In conclusion, the future of remote connectivity is bright with Solar PoE Switches leading the charge towards a more connected and sustainable world.

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Why we need 4G Industrial Routers?

lud zhu

With the ongoing digital transformation in industries, the demand for reliable and efficient network connectivity is escalating. In this context, 4G industrial routers are emerging as crucial networking devices, playing a vital role in connecting industrial equipment and facilitating data transmission. This article delves into the usage scenarios and significance of 4G industrial routers in industrial applications.

  1. Remote Monitoring and Control

In industrial settings, many devices require remote monitoring and control to ensure their smooth operation and timely maintenance. 4G industrial routers provide a reliable remote connection, enabling operators to monitor device status and undertake necessary control operations from anywhere, anytime.

  1. Connectivity for Mobile Devices

Numerous industrial scenarios involve real-time communication between mobile devices such as robots and AGVs (Automated Guided Vehicles) and central control systems. Given the dynamic nature of mobile devices' locations, traditional wired connections may fall short. 4G industrial routers offer stable data transmission channels via mobile networks, ensuring seamless connectivity for these mobile devices.

  1. Emergency Response

In industrial production, prompt response to emergencies is crucial to minimize losses and mitigate risks. 4G industrial routers serve as reliable communication support for emergency response teams, enabling them to swiftly access critical information and take appropriate measures.

  1. Network Backup and Failover

To ensure the uninterrupted operation of production lines, industrial systems often deploy multiple network connections as backups. 4G industrial routers can function as one of these backup connections, automatically switching to the 4G network when the primary network encounters failure, thereby ensuring continuous operation of production lines.

  1. Network Extension and Coverage

In remote or temporary industrial locations where traditional wired network coverage is limited, 4G industrial routers can extend the network coverage via wireless connections, providing reliable network connectivity for these areas. 4G industrial routers play an important role in situations where it is difficult to set up a wired network, such as scientific field trips or smart agriculture.

From remote monitoring and control to emergency response and network redundancy, 4G industrial routers play a pivotal role in industrial applications. As industries continue their digital transformation journey, these routers will remain indispensable, driving the progress of the industrial Internet. Through this article, we hope readers gain a deeper understanding of the significance and applications of 4G industrial routers in industrial settings, offering insights and reflections for industrial network infrastructure development.

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What is Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) in IP Cameras?

Andy Chen

Have you ever wondered why some security camera footage appears washed out or too dark to distinguish details? This issue can be attributed to the concept of dynamic range, which refers to the balance between light and dark areas within an image. Understanding the concept of wide dynamic range (WDR) is crucial when discussing camera performance, as it plays a significant role in revolutionizing security surveillance.

What Is Wide Dynamic Range?

Wide dynamic range is a term used to describe the contrast ratio between the darkest and brightest color tones that a camera can capture in a single exposure. In video surveillance, WDR technology aims to effectively manage high-contrast environments by skillfully balancing the extremes. Its purpose is to prevent overexposure in bright areas and retain detail in dark areas, thereby avoiding under- or overexposed footage.

The measurement of a camera's dynamic range is expressed in decibels (dB), with the industry standard defined by IHS Markit stating that WDR should have a range of 60 dB or higher. However, it is not uncommon to find WDR cameras that offer dynamic ranges of 120 dB or even greater.

To illustrate the effectiveness of WDR technology in surveillance cameras, let's compare two images. In the first image without WDR, the camera's exposure is affected by the intense light coming from the window. As a result, the exterior view is overexposed, obscuring the details, while the room's interior appears too dark. However, in the second image with WDR enabled, the camera achieves balanced exposure. Both the bright outdoor scenery and the interior details of the conference room are captured clearly, ensuring visibility of both areas within the same frame.

WDR Off vs. WDR On

How Does WDR Work?

WDR technology utilizes two processors, namely a light image processor and a dark image processor, to enhance the overall image quality and clarity.

When employing WDR technology in a PoE IP camera, the camera lens allows different amounts of light to enter specific areas of the image by utilizing varying shutter speeds. This control of light exposure helps achieve a well-balanced WDR image.

In areas with brighter lighting conditions, the camera lens employs a higher shutter speed, resulting in a shorter duration of light exposure for the camera sensor.

Conversely, in darker areas, the camera lens adopts a relatively slower shutter speed, allowing the sensor to capture more light over an extended period.

By combining the information from both images captured at different exposure settings, a final image is generated, which exhibits improved quality and clarity compared to a single-exposure image.

True WDR vs DWDR

True WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) and DWDR (Digital Wide Dynamic Range) are two technologies utilized in cameras to handle high-contrast lighting conditions.

True WDR employs a combination of hardware and software to capture multiple frames simultaneously at different exposure levels. These frames are then merged to create a single image with well-balanced exposure, ensuring that both the brightest highlights and darkest shadows retain their detail.

In contrast, DWDR operates solely through software manipulation on a single image. It adjusts the brightness of shadows and reduces the intensity of highlights. While DWDR is a cost-effective solution, it is generally less effective than True WDR and more suitable for lighting situations that are less challenging.


WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) and HDR (High Dynamic Range) are two distinct image processing techniques that aim to improve image capture performance in high-contrast scenes. It is important to understand the differences between WDR and HDR to choose the appropriate surveillance technology that meets the requirements of various environments and image quality needs.

When comparing HDR and WDR, we recommend using WDR technology for security cameras due to the following advantages:

  1. High-Speed Processing: WDR technology is supported by high-speed digital signal processing (DSP), enabling it to effectively handle dynamic images and videos.

  2. Adjustable Exposure: WDR allows for the output of multiple frames with different exposure times, and each frame's gain can be individually set. This flexibility allows for precise control over the exposure settings.

  3. Backlight Compensation: WDR enables imaging systems to compensate for intense backlighting surrounding subjects. This feature enhances the ability to distinguish features and shapes on the subject, ensuring clearer and more detailed images.

  4. Better Low-Light Imaging: WDR technology excels at capturing images in low-light environments. It can effectively illuminate dark areas, ensuring security even in situations with low or no power supply.

  5. Sharp Details: Compared to HDR, WDR technology produces images with exceptional sharpness and more pronounced details. This results in improved image quality and enhanced visibility of important information.

  6. Cost-Effective: WDR cameras are more cost-effective in terms of installation and purchase price compared to HDR cameras. This makes WDR technology a practical choice for various surveillance applications, providing high-quality imaging at a more affordable cost.

Where to Use WDR Cameras?

WDR cameras find extensive use in environments characterized by demanding lighting conditions, particularly in areas where there is a significant contrast between bright and dark areas. Here are some common applications where WDR cameras are employed:

Where to Use WDR Cameras


The primary application for WDR cameras is monitoring the entrances of buildings. Whether it's a store, bank, ATM, transportation facility, restaurant, or hospital, every establishment has entrance doors that introduce bright light compared to the interior space. WDR cameras excel at compensating for areas that are excessively bright or dark and provide clear snapshots or videos.


In high-contrast scenarios where vehicles frequently enter parking lots, darkened garages, or cars with bright headlights approach surveillance cameras, WDR cameras can capture license plates with enhanced clarity.

Window Side

In areas where sunlight streams through glass panes, creating sharp contrasts of light and shadow within interior spaces, WDR cameras meticulously balance the intense glare from the outdoors with the softer indoor lighting. This ensures that every detail, from people's expressions near the window to the movement of curtains in the sunlight, is captured accurately.


Outdoor surveillance cameras often face the challenge of strong sunlight, which contrasts with the shadows of buildings or areas without direct sunlight. WDR cameras effectively compensate for these differences, providing clear and balanced images.

To further enhance security with high-quality video capture in challenging lighting conditions, Linovision offers a range of security cameras equipped with WDR technology. These options include the 4K bullet PoE IP camera, the 4MP dome network camera, the 4MP turret network camera. Linovision not only provides security cameras but also offers comprehensive video surveillance solutions tailored for enterprises, retail supermarkets, campuses, and other specific needs.

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Technical Guide to IP Cameras- Overview, Types, Applications

Andy Chen

IP cameras, also known as Internet Protocol cameras or network cameras, are a type of security camera that utilizes an IP network to receive and transmit video data. Their primary function is to capture video footage and send it over the network. These cameras are commonly used in various sectors and environments as remote monitoring and management tools to enhance security and protect property.

How Does An IP Camera Work?

IP cameras function similarly to digital cameras in capturing high-quality images. However, what distinguishes them is their ability to compress image files and transmit them automatically to a network video recorder (NVR) through a network connection. Typically, IP cameras can be linked to the network either via an Ethernet cable connected to a broadband modem or router, or wirelessly through a Wi-Fi router.

In the case of a building already equipped with a network infrastructure, setting up IP surveillance cameras is a straightforward process. Similar to connecting your laptop or cell phone to a Wi-Fi network, you simply need to integrate the IP cameras and other devices into your existing network system. This involves establishing connections and configuring the cameras to communicate within the network.

By seamlessly integrating IP cameras into the network, you can take advantage of their features for remote monitoring and enhanced security. These cameras enable you to conveniently access and manage them from any location with network access, providing effective surveillance and peace of mind.


Once all the connections have been properly established, the cameras can begin their operation by capturing video footage and transmitting it to the network video recorder.

Four Common Types of IP Camera

There are various video surveillance solutions, in which many different types of security cameras are adopted. Among those surveillance cameras, there are four most commonly used ones, dome cameras, bullet cameras, and turret cameras.  


Four Important Specifications of IP Cameras

When selecting a security camera, it is important to consider not only the type of camera but also its specifications, as they can significantly impact performance. Here are four crucial specifications to keep in mind:


The resolution of an IP camera refers to the total number of pixels that compose an image, typically measured by its width and height. Common resolutions include 720p, 1080p, 5MP, 4K, and 8MP. Higher resolutions generally translate to a greater number of pixels per inch (PPI), resulting in sharper, high-quality images.

Field of View

The field of view (FOV) of an IP camera is determined by its lens and represents the coverage area that can be observed. Different lenses offer varying FOVs, influencing how wide an area the camera can capture. A wider FOV enables monitoring of larger areas. For instance, a large parking lot may require a different lens with a broader viewing angle compared to a small room.

Focal Length

The focal length of a camera lens, measured in millimeters (mm), determines the angle of view and the distance at which the camera can effectively capture images. There are two types of lenses commonly used: fixed focal length and varifocal lenses. Fixed focal lengths, such as 3.6mm or 8mm, provide specific viewing angles and identification distances. Varifocal lenses, like 2.8-12mm, offer adjustable focal lengths, allowing for flexibility in field of view and identification range.

Low Light Sensitivity

Low light sensitivity, often measured in Lux (lx), indicates a camera's ability to produce high-quality images in low-light environments, minimizing noise and preserving details. Factors such as pixel size, signal-to-noise ratio, and lens aperture contribute to a camera's low-light performance. Lower Lux values indicate superior performance in darker areas. For example, cameras with a range of 100-1,000lx are suitable for well-lit workspaces, while cameras with 0.0001lx are designed for moonless or overcast nights.

Most Popular IP Camera Applications


Home Use

For individuals seeking tools to enhance family connections, monitor home security, or safeguard their property, IP cameras are a must-have item. Many homeowners opt to install video surveillance systems to provide a sense of safety for themselves and their families.

IP cameras utilized in home security systems serve a multitude of purposes. They can be positioned near the front door to capture images of anyone entering or lurking around the house. They can also be installed in the backyard to preserve cherished moments with family members. Additionally, they can be placed inside rooms to ensure the well-being of babies or monitor specific areas of the house.

Business Use

Commercial security cameras are commonly employed in business premises, supermarkets, shops, restaurants, and other commercial establishments. For business owners, security cameras not only protect their property, ensuring uninterrupted operations and deterring criminal activities through real-time monitoring, but they also keep them connected to daily operations and employee safety.

Video surveillance solutions can be utilized to maintain outdoor perimeter security and monitor the surrounding areas. Compared to traditional systems, commercial IP video surveillance systems offer enhanced reliability and security with built-in encryption, data compression, network connectivity, and cybersecurity measures.

Public Safety

Surveillance cameras play a vital role in managing public order, safeguarding public safety, and protecting public property. It is common to find monitoring cameras positioned along traffic roads, parking lots, government buildings, and hospitals. Moreover, security cameras are prevalent in public areas such as schools, parks, communities, and neighborhoods.


IP cameras have become an integral part of home, business, and public surveillance systems. With the appropriate video management software, footage captured by IP cameras can be accessed from anywhere worldwide through network connectivity, be it through a laptop or a mobile phone. In many cases, IP cameras can also be remotely controlled, bringing significant convenience to our lives.

There are various types of security cameras designed for specific applications, which is why it is important to consider multiple factors when purchasing IP cameras for your security system. Before proceeding, it is advisable to determine your budget and specific requirements.

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IP Cameras vs Analog Cameras, What Are the Differences?

Andy Chen

In the realm of security and surveillance, the ongoing discussion surrounding IP cameras versus analog cameras holds significant importance for both businesses and homeowners. The choice between an IP camera system and a traditional analog setup can have a profound impact on the effectiveness and scalability of your security measures. This article aims to explore the distinctions between these two prevalent camera types, empowering you to make an informed decision that aligns with your specific surveillance requirements.

Understanding IP Cameras and Analog Cameras

Internet Protocol (IP) cameras refer to all the digital video cameras that can send and receive data via an IP network. They are widely used as video surveillance cameras, and they come in varying designs and capabilities. Some IP cameras need the support of a network video recorder (NVR) for recording and video/alarm management. However, others operate without an NVR, meaning they can record directly to a remote or local storage media. To read more: Technical Guide to IP Cameras - Overview, Types, Applications.

IP cameras encompass all digital video cameras capable of transmitting and receiving data through an IP network. They are widely employed as video surveillance cameras, available in various designs and functionalities. Some IP cameras necessitate the support of a network video recorder (NVR) for recording and managing video and alarms. However, others can operate independently without an NVR, enabling direct recording to local or remote storage media. For further information, please refer to the "Technical Guide to IP Cameras - Overview, Types, Applications."

On the contrary, analog cameras capture images, convert them into analog signals, and transmit them over a coaxial cable to a digital video recorder (DVR). The DVR then converts the analog signals into digital format, compresses the files, and stores them on a hard drive. Below, you will find a comprehensive comparison between an IP camera and an analog camera.

Advantages of IP Cameras

IP cameras provide superior resolutions and scalability, making them ideal for environments that demand comprehensive surveillance coverage over large areas. The transition towards IP-based surveillance has been predominantly influenced by the following factors:

1.Enhanced Resolution and Image Quality: IP cameras generally offer resolutions that surpass those of analog cameras by several magnitudes, resulting in sharper and more detailed images. With the availability of resolutions surpassing 4K, IP cameras deliver the level of clarity necessary for meeting stringent security requirements.

Analog Cameras VS IP Cameras

2. Seamless Integration and Advanced Functionality: By leveraging digital networks, IP cameras have the ability to seamlessly integrate with existing IT infrastructure and services, including cloud storage and sophisticated surveillance software. They offer a wide range of analytical capabilities, such as object recognition, perimeter breach alerts, and other intelligent analytics that leverage video data more efficiently. On the other hand, analog cameras generally lack support for advanced analytics but fulfill basic surveillance functions, such as video recording and live monitoring.

Human Detection
3. Scalability and Flexibility: Thanks to their network-based infrastructure, IP cameras offer effortless integration into existing systems. They support expansive and adaptable surveillance ecosystems that can expand and evolve over time without being constrained by physical connections.
4. PoE Support: IP cameras often have the capability to receive power through the same cable used for data transmission (Power over Ethernet), simplifying installation and reducing the complexity of wiring. This feature eliminates the need for additional power supply units and enables more straightforward and neater setups. In contrast, analog cameras typically require separate power connections.
5. Remote Access: One of the most desirable attributes of IP cameras is the ability to remotely view and manage surveillance footage. Users can access live and recorded videos via internet-connected devices from anywhere in the world, ensuring continuous monitoring and oversight.
6. Advanced Data Protection: IP cameras offer enhanced data protection through encryption and secure network transmission. This ensures that the crucial footage they capture is less susceptible to interception or unauthorized access, addressing a significant concern associated with the more vulnerable transmission methods of analog systems.

Advantages of Analog Cameras

  1. Cost-Effectiveness: One of the primary advantages of analog cameras is their affordability. The initial investment for analog surveillance equipment is typically lower compared to IP-based systems, making them an attractive option for budget-conscious users or smaller-scale operations.

  2. Simplicity and Ease of Use: Analog systems are often considered less complex to install and operate. With a straightforward setup that doesn't require in-depth knowledge of IT infrastructures, analog cameras can be an excellent choice for those seeking a basic yet effective surveillance system. In contrast, IP cameras may have a steeper learning curve for users who are unfamiliar with network technology.

  3. Wide Compatibility: Analog cameras have been in use for decades, leading to a widespread standard of system compatibility. This advantage is particularly valuable when upgrading existing systems, as existing wiring can be reused for new analog cameras.

  4. Low Bandwidth Requirements: Unlike IP cameras, which transmit large amounts of data over a network, analog cameras do not consume significant bandwidth. This results in a lighter load on your network infrastructure and potentially reduced ongoing operational costs.

IP Cameras vs. Analog Cameras: Which is ideal for your business?

Deciding between IP cameras and analog cameras for your business depends on finding the right balance between quality, cost, and ease of use. IP cameras may be the preferred choice if you require high-resolution footage, scalability, and integration with cutting-edge technology. However, if budget constraints are a significant factor and your current infrastructure supports it, analog cameras offer reliability without the need for an extensive overhaul. Ultimately, aligning your selection with your operational needs and financial capacity will ensure a secure and efficient surveillance environment for your business.

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Unlocking the Secrets of PoE Switches — A Complete Guide

Andy Chen

Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches have gained significant popularity as a practical solution for businesses seeking to conveniently deliver power and data through a single connection. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the various types of PoE switches, highlight their advantages and applications, and provide insights on selecting the most suitable PoE switch to meet your specific requirements.

What is a PoE Switch?

A PoE switch combines the functionalities of a switch and a power source into a single device. Equipped with multiple Ethernet ports, these switches facilitate seamless connections with various devices such as VoIP phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras. By integrating power delivery capabilities, PoE switches eliminate the need for separate power cables, streamlining installations. These switches prove particularly beneficial in network deployments where power outlets are limited or in scenarios where devices are situated in challenging-to-access locations.

PoE switches leverage the power over Ethernet (PoE) technology, enabling the simultaneous transmission of data and electrical power through Ethernet cables. This innovative technology employs a combination of power sources and power injectors to deliver power to connected devices. Acting as intermediaries between the power source and the devices, power injectors handle the transmission of both data and power, ensuring efficient operation. Also Check- PoE switch


Types of PoE Switches

When selecting a PoE switch, it is vital to familiarize yourself with the various types available. There exist two primary categories of PoE network switches:

The Unmanaged PoE Switch

Designed for simplicity and ease of use, the unmanaged PoE switch offers a plug-and-play solution that suits smaller setups. It requires minimal configuration and is user-friendly. However, it lacks extensive customization options, management features, and advanced security capabilities. Consequently, it is best suited for applications with uncomplicated network requirements, such as home networks or small-scale environments comprising fewer than 5-10 computers.

The Managed PoE Switch

Engineered to deliver enhanced control and comprehensive network management, managed PoE switches excel in scenarios that demand advanced functionality. With their robust security features and extensive configuration options, they prove ideal for applications like enterprise networks, data centers, and large-scale surveillance systems. These switches offer features such as VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks), QoS (Quality of Service), port mirroring, and heightened port security, catering to complex networking requirements.

Advantages of PoE Switches

Given how PoE switches work, the benefits of PoE switches are obvious.

Simplified Installation: PoE network switches are known for their user-friendly installation and configuration. With plug-and-play functionality, these switches eliminate the need for complex wiring or intricate setup procedures. Built-in features like port mirroring, VLANs, and QoS further simplify network management tasks, enhancing overall operational convenience.

Cost Efficiency: PoE switches exhibit remarkable energy efficiency. By intelligently delivering the precise power required for each connected device, they eliminate the need for oversized power supplies. This efficient power allocation not only reduces energy consumption but also contributes to long-term cost savings, making PoE switches a financially advantageous choice.

Enhanced Flexibility: The ability to power devices through PoE enables easy relocation to areas without available power outlets. This flexibility allows PoE switches to be conveniently placed in challenging-to-reach locations or areas distant from power sources. Security cameras, for instance, can be strategically installed in optimal positions, regardless of the availability of nearby power outlets.

Future-Proofing: With the rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) industry, PoE switches provide future-ready infrastructure. By incorporating PoE switches into your network, you can seamlessly accommodate the increasing number of devices designed to leverage this technology. This scalability ensures long-term compatibility and positions your network for seamless integration with emerging IoT devices.


PoE Switch Applications

This rapid expansion of network-connected devices means that PoE technology and PoE switches will grow in importance to most networking infrastructures. While PoE switches have numerous applications, we mainly discuss the three most common application scenarios.

  • VoIP Phones: VoIP phones are PoE devices, with PoE allowing for a single connection to the wall socket and the ability for remote powering down

  • IP Cameras: Security cameras can be connected to PoE switches to enable fast deployment and simple repositioning.

  • Wireless: Many wireless access points are PoE compatible. Thus, PoE switches allow for easy relocation and remote positioning.

  • Smart Home Automation: LED lighting, heating and cooling systems, appliances, voice assistants, and electric car charging stations.

How to Select the Right PoE Switch

When selecting a PoE switch, it is important to consider your application requirements, the features and limitations of the PoE network switch. Of course, the power requirements of connected devices are also important. Some PoE network switches are designed to power devices that require up to 30 watts, and some are even designed for power devices that require up to 60 watts.

Features of PoE Switches to Consider

In addition to the type of switch and power requirements, there are a number of features to consider when selecting a PoE switch. These features include port speed, port count, port types, PoE budget, power savings, and port security.

  • Port speed: Maximum speed a port can achieve. It is important to choose a switch with a port speed that can support the connected devices. The port count is the number of ports available on the switch. It is important to choose a switch with enough ports to accommodate all of the connected devices.

  • Port type: Common port types include RJ45, SFP, and SFP+. It is important to choose a switch with the right port type for connected devices.

  • PoE budget: Maximum amount of power that can be allocated to connected devices. It is important to choose a switch with a PoE budget that can accommodate all of the connected devices.

  • Power savings: Designed to conserve energy by automatically turning off unused ports. This can help to reduce energy costs. 

  • Port security: Designed to protect connected devices from unauthorized access.

Limitations of PoE Switches

Nonetheless, there are some limitations to PoE variation that you should be aware of:

  • Restrictions on distance: Typically, PoE switches can transmit over Ethernet up to a distance of up to 100 meters. The 100-meter distance restriction presents a challenge for large campuses, restaurants, and businesses implementing PoE. However, there are still devices like power extenders and powered fiber cables that can be used to extend the PoE range.

  • Power: If you require high power over poe networks, you must ensure that the power capacity of your PoE switches meets your requirements due to the power limitation imposed by PoE standards and Wattage.


FAQs about PoE Switch

Q: Non-PoE vs. PoE Switch: How do they differ?

A: Non-PoE switches cannot deliver power to connected devices, necessitating the use of midspan power sourcing equipment (PSE), such as a PoE injector. This setup adds power while transmitting data to powered devices (PDs). In contrast, PoE switches offer a simpler solution, directly delivering power and data to PDs with just a network cable and a power cable.

Also Check- PoE vs PoE+ vs PoE++ Switch: How to Choose?


Q: Do PoE Switches Require Special Cables?

A: No. The Ethernet cables that should be used for PoE network switches primarily depend on the data rate of the PoE port; for instance, Cat3 or better cables can be used for 10/100M; Cat5/Cat5e/Cat6 cables are required for 1000M. In the future, Cat6a or higher cables may be required for the installation of 2.5G/5G/10G PoE devices.


Q: Active vs Passive PoE Switch: Should I Choose Active or Passive PoE Switches?

A: Active PoE network switch complies with standard PoE. On the contrary, passive PoE network switch does not adhere to any IEEE standard. There are many ways that active and passive PoE switches differ from one another, like how the PoE power supply pinout looks and whether or not they support Ethernet.

 Also Check- Active vs. Passive PoE Switch: Which Should We Choose?


Q: Can the PoE Switch be used with a computer or other non-PoE devices? And will a PoE switch harm devices that do not use PoE?

A: Yes, a PoE switch can be used with non-PoE devices like computers. The switch automatically detects whether a connected device is PoE-compatible and will only supply power to PoE-enabled devices. So, it won't harm non-PoE devices; they just won't receive power through the switch.


Q: Is it possible to connect two PoE switches?

A: You could, yes. The PSE only supplies PD with power when it determines that the device can handle it. As PSEs, the two PoE switches will only be used for data communications.


Q: What is the maximum transmission distance of PoE? How to extend the transmission distance of PoE?

A: Whether using IEEE 802.3af (PoE) or 802.3at (PoE+), data and power transmission are limited to a distance of 100 meters over Ethernet cables in standard PoE. Media converters and PoE extenders, for example, can extend the range to up to 300 meters if you want to increase the maximum distance.


PoE switches are an effective solution for businesses looking to provide power and data over a single connection. They can simplify installation, reduce clutter, and improve energy efficiency. When selecting a PoE network switch, it is important to consider your application requirements, the power requirements of the connected devices, and the features of the switch. It is also important to consider the cost and long-term cost savings of using a PoE network switch.

If you are looking for a reliable and cost-effective PoE switch, check out Linovision PoE Switches.

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